In a highly horizontal industry such as 3D printing, the area of bioprinting can represent an entire industry. Therefore, this section in the 3D printing business directory reflects the diversity of this industrial segment. It includes 3D bioprinter hardware manufacturers, bioprinting materials (or bioinks) manufacturers as well as 3D bioprinting services and laboratories. These are often internal to Universities and are servicing the bioengineering, biofabrication and regenerative medicine sectors.
3D Bioprinting includes several different technologies. The most common is pneumatic extrusion, which combines a hydrogel material with either a polymer, ceramic or stem-cell based materials and extruded through a syringe forming complex tridimensional shapes. Other technologies for bioprinting include the use of inkjet/material jetting and stereolithography with UV curing. The most common biomaterials for 3D bioprinting today are cartilage, skin tissue, bone-like ceramic materials and some organ tissue such as liver or kidney, use mainly for drug discovery applications.